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In the realm of smoked ham, salt beef, and dried fish, the concept of a "doneness" scale from raw to overcooked did not exist. Before the days of reliable refrigeration, most meats were preserved. G.iii, Newe reare rosted egges be good in the mornynge.1548 T. ed.) at Ouum, Sorbile ouum, a reere rosted egge.1576 G. Certain meats were "prescribed" for boiling or roasting, according to their inherent humoral nature. They recognized the effect of cooking on the outcome of meat.This early reference notes this stage is unwholesome [Markam]. Black and blue(aka"Pittsburgh style" steak surfaces in print in the 1970s. The ideal method forcooking meat would therefore minimize moisture loss and compacting of the meat fiers, while maximizing the conversion oftough connective-tissue colllagen to fluid gelatin.Late 19th century food scientists examined meat doneness, offering temperature/time recommendations according to type of meat,cut, and method of cooking. Oxford English Dictionary RAREEtymology: Originally a variant of rear adj.1As a result of the lowering influence of r on preceding vowels in southern varieties of English, rear remained homophonous with rare adj.1 at least as late as the 17thcent. This gave rise to the variant rare, which retained the early modern pronunciation in standard English (compare thecurrent pronunciation of e.g. Unfortunately, these two aims conflict with each other... The method must be tailored to the meat's toughness. Many restaurants have placed warnings/disclaimers on menus with regardsto the risks involved with meat served at the lower end of the cooking spectrum. F j b, Poched egges are better than egges rosted hard or rere.1542 A. 21st century American meat eaterscontinue to enjoy their meats from tartar to well.
And its moisture manifests itself if slipperiness; chewing doesn't manage to liberate much juice. As it cooks, meat develops a firmness and resiliance that make it easier to chew. With longer cooking, the juices dry up, and resiliance give way to a drystiffness.
Thermometer readings: Beef, rare, 140 degrees; medium, 160 degrees; well done, 170 degrees."---Joy of Cooking, Irma S. 201)[NOTE: this chart is not included in the original 1931 edition.]Prudence Penny's Cookbook's chapter on cooking meat offers broiling chart (p.
198-199)"Chart for roasting meat by the modern method...
1861), although it was current in English writing from the 18th cent. for roasts and from 95 to 99 degrees for braised meat."---Experimental Cookery, Bell Lowe [John Wiley & Sons: New York] 1932 (p.
Formerly often regarded as an Americanism (see quot. The meat may be cooked until it reaches a temperature far above 71 degrees C., often from 80 to 85 degrees C.
Cooking intensifiesthe taste of meat and creates its aroma.